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Bayesian analysis favored mountain tapir () paraphyly in relation to lowland tapir over reciprocal monophyly, corroborating the inferences from the fossil data these species are sister taxa.A coalescent-based analysis rejected a null hypothesis of allopatric divergence, suggesting a complex history.Her female contemporaries, though they may have descendants alive today, do not have any alive who have descend in an unbroken female line.Using molecular clock methods in the late 1970s, Allan Wilson, Mark Stoneking, Rebecca L. Brown found that mutation in human mt DNA was unexpectedly fast.

Rather than mt DNA, the inherited DNA in the male case is the nuclear Y chromosome.The authors stated that as a regulated secretory protein, BRCA1 appears to function by a mechanism not previously described for tumor suppressor products.As reviewed by 8589705] [Full Text]" pmid="8589705"Steeg (1996), granins are a family of acidic proteins that bind calcium and aggregate in its presence.A method of absolute genetic dating recently introduced uses mutation rates as molecular clocks; it was applied to human evolution using microsatellites, which have a sufficiently high mutation rate.Results are comparable with those of other methods and agree with a recent expansion of modern humans from Africa.Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam need not have lived at the same time.As of 2013, estimates for mt-MRCA and Y-MRCA alike are still subject to substantial uncertainty; thus, Y-MRCA has been estimated to have lived during a wide range of times from 180,000 to 581,000 years ago This has led to repeated misrepresentations or misconceptions in journalistic accounts on the topic.Most patterns found in the analysis of human living populations are likely to be consequences of demographic expansions, determined by technological developments affecting food availability, transportation, or military power.During such expansions, both genes and languages are spread to potentially vast areas.The genetic history of a group of populations is usually analyzed by reconstructing a tree of their origins.Reliability of the reconstruction depends on the validity of the hypothesis that genetic differentiation of the populations is mostly due to population fissions followed by independent evolution.


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